Notre association promeut toutes les formes de compétences et d'intelligences qu'elles soient individuelles ou collectives. La notion de compétence fait référence ici à la valeur intrinsèque de chacun et s'inscrit dans une démarche d'ouverture, de bienveillance et d'esprit positif qui est l'un des piliers de la charte du réseau.

The 10th Amendment provides that, if the Constitution doesn’t either give a power to the national government or take that power away in the nations, that power is reserved for the states or the people themselves. The Supreme Court has interpreted this provision to bar the federal government from »commandeering » the states to enforce federal legislation or policies. Now the justices ruled that a federal law that bars states from legalizing sports gambling violates the anti-commandeering doctrine. Their decision not merely opens the door for states around the nation to permit sports betting, but it also can give considerably more power to states generally, on topics ranging from the decriminalization of marijuana to sanctuary cities.
The federal law at issue in the case is the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act, which dates back to 1992. The legislation, called PASPA, bans most nations out of (among other things) authorizing sports betting; it carved out an exception which would have permitted New Jersey to set up a sports-betting strategy in the country’s casinos, provided that the state did so within a year. However, it required New Jersey 20 years to behave: In 2012, the state legislature passed a law which legalized sports gambling.
Justice Alito delivers opinion in Murphy v. NCAA (Art Lien)
The National Collegiate Athletic Association and the four major professional sports leagues went to court, asserting that the 2012 law breached PASPA. The lower federal courts agreed, prompting the New Jersey legislature to return to the drawing board. In 2014, it passed a new law that gathered back existing bans on sports gambling, at least since they employed to New Jersey casinos and racetracks. The NCAA and the leagues returned into court, arguing that the new law also violated PASPA, along with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit ruled against the state.
The Supreme Court agreed to look at that the state’s constitutional challenge to PASPA, and now the court reversed. In a determination by Justice Samuel Alito, the court began by explaining that the »anticommandeering doctrine may seem arcane, but it’s just the expression of a fundamental structural conclusion incorporated into the Constitution » –« that the choice to withhold from Congress the power to issue orders directly to the States. » And that, the majority lasted, is exactly the issue with the provision of PASPA the state contested, which bars states from authorizing sports betting: It »unequivocally dictates exactly what a state legislature may and might not do. » « It is as if, » the majority suggested, »federal officers were set up in state legislative chambers and have been armed with the ability to stop legislators from voting on any busting proposals. A more direct affront to state sovereignty, » Alito reasoned, »is not easy to envision. »
The court also rejected the argument, made by the championships as well as the federal authorities, the PASPA provision barring states from sports betting does not »commandeer » the nations, but rather simply supersedes any state laws that conflict with the supply — a legal doctrine called pre-emption. Pre-emption, the majority explained, »is based on a federal law which regulates the behaviour of private actors, » but « there is just no way to comprehend the provision prohibiting nation authorization as anything aside from a direct control to the States, » that »is exactly what the anticommandeering rule does not allow. »
Having determined the PASPA provision barring states from sports betting is unconstitutional, the bulk then turned into the question that followed from this conclusion: Should the rest of PASPA be broke down as well, or will the legislation endure without the anti-authorization provision? In legal terms, the query is called »severability, » and now six of the seven justices — Alito along with Chief Justice John Roberts and Justices Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, Elena Kagan and Neil Gorsuch — who also consented that the PASPA anti-authorization provision was unconstitutional also agreed that the entire law should collapse. They concluded that, when the bar on states authorizing or licensing sports betting were invalid, it would be »most unlikely » that Congress would have wanted to keep to stop the states from running sports lotteries, which have been regarded as »much more benign than some other forms of betting. » In the same way, the majority posited, if Congress had known that the bar on condition authorization or operation of sports betting would be struck down, it would not have wanted that the concurrent ban on the operation of sports-betting schemes by private entities to continue. The PASPA provision barring the advertising of sports betting met the same fate; differently, the court explained, »federal law would forbid the advertising of an activity that’s legal under both federal and state law, and that is something that Congress has seldom done. »
The majority acknowledged that the question of whether to legalize sports betting »is a controversial one » that »requires an important policy choice. » But that choice, nearly all continued, »is not ours to make. Congress can regulate sports gambling directly, but when it elects not to do so, every State is free to act on its own. »
Justice Clarence Thomas filed a concurring opinion in which he focused not on the substance of this court’s judgment but rather on a rather subjective legal question: the viability of this court’s present severability doctrine. Thomas made clear that he joined the majority’s decision striking down most of PASPA because »it provides us the ideal answer it can for this question, and no party has asked us to apply a different test. » However he proposed that the court should, at some point in the future, rethink its severability philosophy, which he characterized as »dubious. » First, he observed, the philosophy is contrary to the tools that courts normally use to interpret laws since it requires a « `nebulous inquiry into hypothetical congressional purpose, »’ teaching judges to attempt to work out exactly what Congress would have wanted to do if part of a law violated the Constitution, when »it appears improbable that the enacting Congress had any intention on this query. » Secondly, he continued, the doctrine »often requires courts to weigh in on statutory terms that no party has » a legal right to battle.
Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg filed a dissenting opinion. Ginsburg didn’t elaborate on her apparent conclusion (joined in total by Justice Sonia Sotomayor) that PASPA’s pub on the consent of sports betting by the nations does not violate the Constitution. Rather, she argued (also with the support of Justice Stephen Breyer) that, even if PASPA’s anti-authorization supply is unconstitutional, the rest of the law should stay in force. « On no logical ground, » Ginsburg highlighted, »is it concluded that Congress would have chosen no statute whatsoever if it could not prohibit States from authorizing or licensing these schemes. »
New Jersey has long estimated that allowing sports betting would revive the state’s struggling racetracks and casinos. In March of this year, ESPN projected that if New Jersey were to triumph, the state could have legal sports betting by the time football season kicks off in the autumn; almost two dozen other nations are also considering bills that would enable sports gambling. The economic effect of allowing sports gambling cannot be understated: Legal sports gambling in Las Vegas takes in over $5 billion annually, and many estimates put the value of illegal sports gambling in the United States at around $100 billion.
Today’s ruling may also have a much broader reach, potentially affecting a range of topics that bear little resemblance to sports gambling. By way of example, supporters of so-called »sanctuary cities » — towns that refuse to cooperate with federal immigration officials to enforce immigration laws — have mentioned the 10th Amendment in late challenges to the national government’s attempts to implement states on grants for state and local law enforcement. Challenges to the federal government’s recent efforts to enforce federal marijuana laws in countries that have legalized the drug for recreational or medical use might also be dependent on the 10th Amendment.

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